What are First, Second, and Third-Generation Biofuels?
Biofuels are made from biomass, which is organic matter derived from plants or animals. There are different types of biofuels sourced from different types of biomass.
However, certain biomass feedstock sources seem to have commonalities that can be used to categorize them into a more organized and useful structure.
You may be thinking, “Why does this matter?
Well, it turns out that the generation of biofuel has significant impacts on things like cost, energy output, environmental friendliness, and more. Therefore, categorizing biofuels can help us to easier understand and compare them.
As you may have guessed, with each generation, the technology, and processes involved in making biofuels get more advanced. This means that each generation tends to be more efficient and have fewer negative impacts than the last.
So, without further ado, let’s take a look at first, second, and third-generation biofuels.
First-generation biofuels are derived from food crops such as corn, sugar cane, sunflower oil, soybeans, starch, and sucrose. They are also sometimes referred to as “conventional biofuels.”
The main process used to convert these feedstocks into biofuel is fermentation. In this process, enzymes are used to break down the carbohydrates in biomass into sugars. These sugars are then converted into alcohols like ethanol or butanol, which can be used as fuel.
However, they can also be used to make biodiesel, which is a type of diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. To produce biodiesel, the triglycerides in biomass are broken down into fatty acids, which are then reacted with methanol to produce biodiesel.
But before the process can even begin, the biomass must first be crushed and pressed to extract the oils. So there is a mechanical component to first-generation biofuel production as well.
The main advantage of first-generation biofuels is that they have high energy yields, and the processes used to convert them into biofuel are well-understood.
However, there are also some disadvantages. One is that they compete with food crops for land, water, and other resources. This can potentially drive up food prices and lead to hunger and malnutrition.
Another disadvantage is that plants like corn and soybeans are typically grown with the help of fossil fuels, pesticides, and fertilizers. They need a lot of energy and resources to grow, so first-generation biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as you might think.
The final disadvantage is that they can release greenhouse gases when grown and processed. This negates some of the climate change benefits that biofuels are supposed to provide.
Despite these disadvantages, first-generation biofuels are still in use today. In the United States, corn is the most common feedstock used to make ethanol. In fact, ethanol production has been the dominant user of domestically farmed corn in the United States since 2010.
Second-generation biofuels are derived from plants that are not used for food. They are sourced from things like agricultural waste, wood chips, and grasses. The main process used to convert these feedstocks into biofuel is thermochemical conversion.
This process uses heat, pressure, and chemicals to break down the biomass into molecules like sugars, lignin, and cellulose. These molecules can then be converted into biofuel.
The main advantage of second-generation biofuels is that they do not compete with food crops for land, water, and other resources. This means that they have the potential to be more environmentally friendly than first-generation biofuels.
Another advantage is that they can be made from a wide variety of feedstocks. This gives us more options for where we get our biofuel and makes second-generation biofuels more sustainable in the long run.
The main disadvantage of second-generation biofuels is that the processes used to convert them into biofuel are not as well-understood as those for first-generation biofuels. This means that they are not as efficient and have lower energy yields.
Another disadvantage is that they typically require more land to grow the same amount of biofuel as first-generation biofuels. This means that they are not as environmentally friendly as we would like them to be.
Despite these disadvantages, second-generation biofuels are thought to be a better option than first-generation biofuels in the long run. Because they can be planted on marginal land and do not compete with food crops, they have the potential to be more sustainable.
Crops that are second-generation biofuel feedstocks include wood chips, straw, corn stover (the leaves and stalks of the plant), and switchgrass. They can be grown on marginal land (steep, rocky land that is not suitable for food crops) and do not require as much water or fertilizer as first-generation biofuels.
More and more research is focusing on second-generation biofuels. Because they combine the benefits of being renewable and not competing with the food supply, they are seen as a more sustainable option than first-generation biofuels.
Although second-generation crops need little initial input, they do require extra treatment to break down cellulose in order to produce an end product such as liquid gasoline. Furthermore, transporting large volumes of biomass can be a logistical and economical problem for farmers.
Third-generation biofuels are advanced biofuels that are superior to first- and second-generation biofuels in multiple ways.
The main advantage of third-generation biofuels is that they are made from algae. Algae are a type of aquatic plant that can be grown in salt water or fresh water. They grow very quickly and do not require land or freshwater to grow.
This means that they have a much smaller environmental footprint than first- and second-generation biofuels. In addition, algae produce a higher yield of oil than other plants. This means that we can get more biofuel from a smaller area of land.
The main disadvantage of third-generation biofuels is that they aren’t made widely available for commercial use. This means more research is needed to develop the technology and make it economically viable.
Despite this disadvantage, third-generation biofuels are seen as a promising option for the future. Because they have a small environmental footprint and can be grown in saltwater, they have the potential to be more sustainable than first- and second-generation biofuels.
Although growing algae for biodiesel don’t require much input, it may require a controlled environment such as a greenhouse in order to achieve commercial-scale production.