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Biomass Conversion Processes: How Biomass is Turned into Biofuel?

The raw nature of biomass makes it difficult to use as an energy source right away. Biomass needs to go through a conversion process in order to be usable as a biofuel.

We cannot use corn stalks or wood chips in our vehicles without first converting them into something like ethanol or biodiesel.

Dairy manure cannot be directly piped into a cookstove. It must first be converted into methane gas.

Similarly, switchgrass cannot be fed into a woodstove. We need to convert it into pellets. All of these processes are necessary and known as biomass conversion.

There are numerous conversion processes that can be used to convert biomass to biofuel. Depending on the type of biomass and the desired end product, different processes may be used.

Some of these processes are straightforward, such as drying and crushing the biomass. Other processes are more complicated, involving chemical or biological reactions. As a result, the term “biofuel conversion” can refer to a wide variety of processes.

That is why certain biomass conversion processes can be applicable for small-scale applications while others are more suited for large-scale commercial operations.

For example, a typical dairy farm may have the ability to dry and pellet their manure, which can then be used as a fuel source for their farm. However, the farm will not likely have the ability to perform large-scale processes like cellulosic ethanol production.

In this post, we will take a closer look at some of the more common biomass conversion processes. We will see how these processes work and what they are used for.

Mechanical Processes

Mechanical processes typically aren’t conversion processes used to produce biofuels on their own. They are instead used to prepare biomass for other conversion processes.

The most common mechanical process is simply drying the biomass. This is typically done by drying the biomass in the sun or in a kiln. Take wood chips for example.

If these wood chips are going to be used to produce pellets, they need to have a moisture content of less than 15%. If the wood chips have a higher moisture content, they won’t burn properly in the pellet mill.

Drying biomass can be achieved through a number of methods. The most common method is to simply expose the biomass to the sun or air.

Although this method is effective, it can be very slow. Another common method is to use a kiln. Kilns are often used to dry larger pieces of biomass in a shorter amount of time.

Another mechanical process that is often used is crushing the biomass.

Grinding Gear Crushes Sugar Cane

This is typically done using a hammer mill or a wood chipper. The process of crushing the biomass increases the surface area of the biomass.

This is important because it makes it easier for the enzymes or bacteria to break down the biomass during the next step of the process.

One final mechanical process that we will mention is called pelletizing.

Biomass pellets

This is a process that is used to turn biomass into pellets. The pellets are typically used as a fuel source for pellet stoves.

For this process, the biomass is fed into a pellet mill, where it is compressed and formed into pellets.

The pellets are then cooled and stored for later use. The reason this process is often used is that it increases the density of the biomass. This makes it easier to store and transport the pellets.

Direct combustion (burning) 

Direct combustion (burning) is perhaps the simplest way to convert biomass into energy. It is also one of the oldest methods of using biomass as a fuel source.

burning wood pellets

People have been burning wood for heat and cooking for thousands of years. In more recent times, people have started burning other types of biomass, such as corn stalks, wood chips, and switchgrass.

Burning biomass directly is still a common way to generate energy from biomass. It is often used in large-scale commercial operations, such as power plants.

Burning biomass has some advantages. It is a relatively simple process and it can be used to generate a wide variety of energy products, such as heat, electricity, and steam.

However, burning biomass also has some disadvantages. It can release pollutants into the air and it is not very efficient. As a result, other methods of converting biomass into energy are often used.


Gasification is the partial oxidation of biomass into syngas at high temperatures. This gas can be used to generate electricity or to produce chemicals and transportation fuels.

In order to use syngas as a fuel, it must first be cleaned of impurities such as tars and dust particles. The gas should also be nitrogen-free as it will be required for the subsequent reactions that take place in the gasifier.

Syngas can be used to produce methanol, which can be further converted into gasoline. It can also be used to produce hydrogen, which can be used in a fuel cell to generate electricity.

Gasification is a versatile process that can be used to produce a variety of fuels from different types of biomass.

The main advantage of gasification is that it can be used to produce transportation fuels from a wide variety of feedstocks. It is also a relatively clean process, as it produces few emissions.

The main disadvantage of gasification is that it requires high temperatures and pressures, which can be expensive to achieve. Gasification is also a complex process, which can make it difficult to control.

There are a few different types of gasification processes, including:

Fixed bed gasification

Fixed-bed gasification is a process in which the raw material remains stationary while the gas flows through it.

The gas can flow in three directions: updraft, downdraft, and crossflow. The advantages of this approach are increased mixing and faster reaction rates.

Fluidized bed gasification

Fluidized-bed gasification is a gasifying suspension that will convert particles into liquids. This option has the advantage of homogeneous temperature distribution and increased solid-to-gas contact, allowing us to gasify various biomass feedstocks.

Dual fluidized bed gasification

With dual fluidized bed gasification, the gasification takes place in one reactor while the combustion takes place in another.

Steam is the gasifying agent capable of producing high hydrogen content products (40%). The hydrogen products are excellent candidates for chemical synthesis.

Supercritical water gasification

In supercritical water gasification, biomass is converted using a water flow that can reach up to 80% of the entire feed percentage. This method improves reaction performance without requiring an expensive drying step.

Plasma gasification

Plasma gasification utilizes electrical currents to remove electrons from gas molecules. The operation takes place at very high temperatures 2000ºC to 30000ºC.


Pyrolysis is the decomposition of biomass at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen. It can be used to produce transportation fuels, chemicals, and electricity.

The most critical part of the pyrolysis process is the high temperature, which must be carefully controlled in order to prevent the formation of unwanted byproducts.

The main advantage of pyrolysis is that it can be used to produce transportation fuels from a wide variety of feedstocks. Pyrolysis is also a relatively clean process, as it produces few emissions.

The main disadvantage of pyrolysis is that it requires high temperatures, which can be expensive to achieve.

Slow pyrolysis

Slow pyrolysis is a process in which the biomass goes through a series of heating and cooling cycles.

The reactions that take place during the process produce a variety of gases, liquids, and solids. This method produces higher yields of bio-oil than fast pyrolysis. Slow pyrolysis can be applied to both fixed bed and tubular reactors.

Fast pyrolysis

Fast pyrolysis is a process in which the biomass is heated to high temperatures (300-900°C) for a short period of time.

The process produces a liquid known as bio-oil, which can be further converted into transportation fuels. This method works well in a wide range of reactors.

Flash pyrolysis

Flash pyrolysis is a process in which the biomass is heated to high temperatures (1000-1500°C) for a very short period of time (a few seconds typically).

The main difficulty with flash procedures is the high ash content might affect product quality and stability.

Catalytic biomass pyrolysis

Catalytic biomass pyrolysis is a process in which the biomass is heated to high temperatures (1000-1500°C) in the presence of a catalyst. The most common catalysts used are metals, metal oxides, and zeolites.

The main advantage of this process is the increased conversion of biomass to transportation fuels. The main disadvantage is the high temperatures required, which can be expensive to achieve.


Liquefaction is the process of converting biomass into more complex liquefied products through complex physical and chemical reactions.

During the process, biomass is broken down into smaller molecules that are more easily transported and used. These smaller molecules are typically unstable and reactive and have the potential to polymerize into oil-like substances with a wide molecular weight dispersion.

A variety of reactions including solvolysis, depolymerization, decarboxylation, hydrogenolysis, and hydrogenation can take place during liquefaction. Liquefication can be divided into two methods. Direct liquefaction and indirect liquefaction.

Direct liquefaction includes pyrolysis, solvolysis liquefaction, and high pressure hydrothermal/solvolytic liquefaction to create liquid tars and oils.

Indirect liquefaction is a type of condensing method that uses catalysts to generate liquid goods from a gas mixture. In fact, the indirect liquefaction process is almost identical to the gasification process we discussed earlier.


The hydrolysis method uses acid/enzymes to break the bonds in lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. It involves adding water to biomass and then breaking down the biomass using either heat or chemicals.

The pretreatment step is critical to the success of hydrolysis, as it determines how easily the biomass will break down. This step includes a combination of physical and chemical processes that prepare the biomass for hydrolysis.

There are two main types of hydrolysis:

Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis uses acids to break down the biomass. The advantage of this method is that it can be done at lower temperatures, which saves energy.

The disadvantage is that it produces more byproducts and requires more expensive equipment.

It has been found that hydrolysis at high acid concentrations has a higher rate of cellulose and hemicellulose conversion into sugar (the saccharification process) than dilute acid hydrolysis, which is less efficient.

Enzymatic hydrolysis

Enzymatic hydrolysis uses enzymes to break down the biomass. The advantage of this method is that it produces fewer byproducts. The disadvantage is that it requires more expensive enzymes and takes longer to break down the biomass.

The enzymes used in enzymatic hydrolysis are called cellulases and hemicellulases.

Cellulases break down cellulose, while hemicellulases break down hemicellulose. These enzymes are produced by microorganisms under controlled conditions.

The hydrolysis process can be conducted at either low or high temperatures. Low-temperature hydrolysis is conducted below 100ºC, while high-temperature hydrolysis is conducted above 100ºC.

The main difference between the two methods is the amount of time it takes to break down the biomass. Low-temperature hydrolysis takes longer but produces fewer byproducts. High-temperature hydrolysis is faster but produces more byproducts.

The choice of temperature depends on the type of biomass and the desired product.

Biological Conversion

Biological conversion is the process of using microorganisms to convert biomass into biofuels.

This process can be done as anaerobic digestion(fermentation), or aerobic digestion.

Anaerobic digestion(fermentation)

Anaerobic digestion is the process of breaking down biomass in the absence of oxygen. This process is conducted by bacteria that live in environments without oxygen.

The bacteria break down the bonds in the biomass by a process called fermentation. The end products of fermentation are methane and carbon dioxide.

Aerobic digestion

Aerobic digestion is the process of breaking down biomass in the presence of oxygen.

Certain microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, can break down the complex carbohydrates in biomass into simpler sugars. These sugars can then be used to produce biofuels.

The advantage of this method is that it doesn’t produce byproducts that need to be disposed of. The disadvantage is that it requires a lot of energy to maintain an oxygen-free environment.

The main products of aerobic digestion are methane similar to the output of anaerobic digestion. The difference is that the microorganisms that break down the biomass in aerobic digestion need oxygen to survive.


There are many different ways to convert biomass into biofuels. Certain methods are more effective than others, and the choice of method depends on the type of biomass and the desired product.

Also, certain methods produce byproducts that need to be disposed of, while others don’t. The method of conversion should be carefully chosen to maximize efficiency and minimize the negative impact on the environment.